Policies, procedures, processes–these are three distinct types of documents. Unfortunately, their apparent similarities tempt many writers to lump policy, process, and procedure together in one document. When they do, the reader who wants to follow the procedure gets stuck in the policy. The reader who needs to know the policy stumbles through the process description. And the reader who wants to understand the process wanders through the step-by-step procedure.
Here are descriptions of the three P documents:
1. A policy describes the rules:
"We permit telecommuting when it does not interfere with. . . ."
"Customer returns are allowed when the items are in saleable condition and. . . ."
"Make-up lessons are allowed in situations involving illness or family emergency."
A policy does not include steps or a description of who does what.
Sample policies: a teacher's policy on homework, a company's policy on alcohol at company-sponsored events, a union's policy on seniority.
2. A process describes what happens:
"When the Help Ticket is closed, the customer receives a Customer Satisfaction Survey. If the customer completes the survey, a thank you is sent by email. Then a coupon for 10 percent off is generated. . . . "
A process does not include steps to follow, but rather steps to know about. Sometimes flow charts illustrate the steps.
Sample processes: a scientific journal's peer review process, a university's process for determining financial aid, a mortgage company's process for approving loans.
3. A procedure lists the steps to follow to accomplish a task:
1. Slide the black latch in the direction of the arrow.
2. Open the back of the camera.
3. Remove the film.
Procedures frequently begin with a list of parts and equipment needed, often with pictures of them. The steps begin with action verbs (slide, open, remove) that the reader actually follows.
Sample procedures: a recipe, instructions for assembling a desk, steps to follow to update a database.
In a Better Business Writing class last week, two technical writers bemoaned the fact that employees want to publish policies in the company procedure manual. When they are told that what they have written is not a procedure, the employees say, "But it says what we do." Well, not exactly. It describes the rules.
It is possible to write one document with policy, process, and procedure, as long as the document is broken into distinct sections with clear headings. But when the three parts run together, it becomes a three-headed document–fascinating but impossible to focus on. Usually the reader needs just one part–a procedure to follow, a process to understand, or a policy to adhere to–not all three.
Avoid three-headed documents. Know whether you are writing a process or a procedure or a policy, and stick to a plan. If you do so, your job and your reader's will be a lot easier.